Ged Social Studies Pre 1 - online test

Like so many other exploration stories, the Lewis and Clark journey was shaped by the search for navigable rivers, inspired by the quest for Edens, and driven by competition for empire. Thomas Jefferson was motivated by these aspirations when he drafted instructions for his explorers, sending them up the Missouri River in search of a passage to the Pacific. Writing to William Dunbar just a month after Lewis and Clark left Fort Mandan, Jefferson emphasized the importance of rivers in his plan for western exploration and national expansion. "We shall delineate with correctness the great arteries of this great country. " River highways could take Americans into an Eden, Jefferson's vision of the West as the "Garden of the World. " And those same rivers might be nature's out-lines and borders for empire. "Future generations would, " so the president told his friend, "fill up the canvas we begin. "

Source: Library of Congress, Exhibits, "Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis & Clark and the Revealing of America. "

Which of the following was NOT one of Jefferson's goals in sponsoring the Lewis and Clark expedition?

finding a waterway to the Pacific Ocean

mapping uncharted territory

setting aside vast tracts of land for Native people

discovery of unspoiled plant and animal life

creation of an empire

Jefferson had no plan for setting aside land for Native people at the time

Which historical idea best summarizes Jefferson's attitude toward the West?

Separation of Powers

Manifest Destiny

Pursuit of Happiness

Good Neighbor Policy

Separate but Equal

Manifest Destiny is a belief that the United States had a mandate to expand its civilization westward. Jefferson's vision of an empire with future generations filling up "the canvas we begin" most closely resembles the idea of Manifest Destiny
About the time of World War I, sharp-eyed entrepreneurs began . . . to see ways to profit from the motorist's freedom . . . Shops could be set up almost anywhere the law allowed, and a wide variety of products and services could be counted on to sell briskly in the roadside marketplace. A certain number of cars passing by would always be in need of gas. Travelers eventually grew hungry, tired, and restless for diversions. Soon gas stations, produce booths, hot dog stands, and tourist camps sprouted up along the nation's roadsides to capitalize on these needs. As competition increased, merchants looked for new ways to snag the new market awheel. Each sign and building had to visually shout: "Slow down, pull in, and buy. "Still more businesses moved to the highway— supermarkets, motor courts, restaurants, miniature golf courses, drive-in theaters. By the early 1950s, almost anything could be bought along the roadside.

Source: Excerpt from Chester H. Liebs, Main Street to Miracle Mile. Little, Brown and Company, 1985.

What is the main idea of the passage?

Miniature golf was a very popular sport in the 1950s.

Travelers were looking for sources of entertainment.

Some highway businesses were more successful than others.

Flashy commercial enterprises sprouted along highways, eager to profit from travelers.

The first businesses to flourish along the high-ways were gas stations and hot dog stands.

Choice d best describes the main idea of the paragraph

Given the information in this passage, what appeared to be an important post-World War II trend in the United States?

train travel

car culture

historic preservation

downtown renewal

environmentalism

Roadside commercial enterprises flourished with highway construction and car travel
In January 1863 during the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation freed more than three million slaves who lived in the Confederate states. Lincoln stated:

"And by virtue of the power and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all person held as slaves within said designated states and parts of states are, and henceforward shall be, free; and that the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.

And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free and abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defense; and I recommend to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages.

And I further declare and make known that such persons, of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service. "

Source: HistoryCentral. com.

According to the passage, which of the following was NOT one of Lincoln's expectations for the former slaves?

to fight for the Union army

to become free citizens

to join the paid workforce

to defend themselves if necessary

to incite a rebellion among slaves in states that were loyal to the Union

Lincoln stated that freed slaves should "abstain [withhold] from all violence, unless in necessary self-defense."He most likely did not want freed slaves to begin rebellions in areas where states loyal to the Union still held slaves

Based on the values expressed in the Emancipation Proclamation, which of the following groups would have disapproved it?

nations like Great Britain and France where there was strong antislavery sentiment

Confederate leaders

abolitionists

Union armed forces

humanitarians

The basic value expressed by the proclamation is liberty for enslaved people. Although it had limitations— it freed only slaves in states that had seceded—the proclamation marked a shift in Lincoln's policy. Slavery was completely abolished in 1865 with the Thirteenth Amendment. Proslavery Confederate leaders had the most reason to dislike the proclamation. They feared it would cause rebellion

Which of the following is the most likely reason that Lincoln did not emancipate all slaves?

Lincoln did not want to appease radical abolitionist groups.

He believed slavery was an economic necessity.

He did not want to upset the slaveholding states that were loyal to the Union—Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri.

Lincoln did not believe that the complete abolition of slavery was possible.

He wanted to uphold the Supreme Court decision in the Dred Scott case, which said that Congress could not regulate slavery in new territories.

Lincoln was reluctant to issue an order that abolished slavery throughout the nation out of loyalty to the four border states that stayed with the Union
The Cuban Missile Crisis began in 1962 when U. S. spy planes spotted Soviet missile installations under construction in Cuba. The missiles were capable of carrying nuclear weapons and were within range of major U. S. cities. A thirteen-day standoff began, during which President John F. Kennedy imposed a naval blockade of Cuba and demanded that the Soviets remove the weapons. Kennedy stated that any missile attack from Cuba would be regarded as an attack from the Soviet Union and would be responded to accordingly. Khrushchev later conceded, agreeing to remove the weapons if, in return, the United States pledged not to invade the island. Details from U. S. and Soviet declassified files and participants in the crisis have surfaced since the incident. Unknown to the U. S. government at the time, 40, 000 Soviet soldiers were stationed in Cuba and armed with nuclear weapons. Although Khrushchev's actions helped avert nuclear war, they made him appear weak to younger Soviet leaders who ousted him from power. Historians regard the crisis as the world's closest brush with the threat of nuclear war.

According to the information given in this passage, it is most likely that President Kennedy

viewed this as a regional crisis solely between the United States and Cuba.

trusted Soviet officials who said there weren't any missiles in Cuba.

believed that the conflict was principally between the United States and the Soviet Union.

viewed the situation as serious but felt it could be managed with diplomacy.

felt confident about how Khrushchev would respond.

Kennedy proclaimed that any nuclear missile attack from Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviet Union

Which of the conclusions can you make based on the passage?

Kennedy's first concern during the crisis was the appeal of Communist ideas.

Nuclear war is the only way to win a cold war.

Kennedy knew that Khrushchev would back down.

Khrushchev's popularity increased at home.

The U. S. government did not know the full extent of the Soviet threat at the time.

The United States did not know how many Soviet troops were present in Cuba, so they did not know the full extent of the Soviet threat at the time
Mohandas Gandhi, also known as Mahatma Gandhi, developed a policy of passive resistance in his civil rights struggle for Indian immigrants in South Africa, and later in the campaign for Indian independence from British rule. The writings of the Russian author Leo Tolstoy and the essay, "Civil Disobedience, " by nineteenth-century American Henry David Thoreau inspired Gandhi. Gandhi called acts of nonviolent resistance by the term satyagraha, Sanskrit for "truth and firmness. " The Salt Satyagraha of 1930 exemplified his policy. In protest against the British government's salt tax, he led tens of thousands of Indians on a 200-mile march to the Arabian Sea, where they made salt from evaporated sea water. Thousands, including Gandhi, were arrested. When the British con-ceded to his demands, Gandhi stopped the campaign. He was released from prison in 1931, and that same year, he traveled to London as a representative of the Indian National Congress to negotiate reform measures.

Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the passage?

Gandhi's nonviolent protests were effective political tools.

The British did not respond to the Salt Satyagraha.

Satyagrahameans

Gandhi refused to support the British government in World War II until it granted India its independence.

India could not win its independence without resorting to violent revolution.

The British concession to Gandhi's demands shows that his use of nonviolent protest was an effective political tool. choice c is a detail from the passage; choices b and e are untrue; and choice d is not supported by the passage
From 2000 B. C. until the twentieth century, a succession of dynasties ruled China. The word China comes from the Ch'in Dynasty (221–206 B. C. ), which first unified the country by conquering warring land-owning feudal lords. King Cheng named himself Shih Huang-ti, or first emperor, and consolidated his empire by abolishing feudal rule, creating a centralized monarchy, establishing a system of laws and a common written language, and building roads and canals to the capital. Scholars speculate that construction of the Great Wall or chang cheng, meaning "long wall, " began during the Ch'in Dynasty in order to protect China's northern border from invaders. Shih Huang-ti ruled with absolute power, imposing strict laws and heavy taxes and doling out harsh punishments. He also is reputed to have burned books on topics that he did not consider useful like agriculture or medicine. Shih Huang-ti died in 210 B. C. His son succeeded him, but soon peasants and former nobles revolted and overthrew the dynasty. The Han Dynasty replaced it, ruling China until 220 A. D.

Which of the following is NOT a contribution of the Ch'in Dynasty?

unification of territory

feudal aristocracy

road construction

standardized written script

regulations and penalties

Ch'in Shih Huang-ti abolished the aristocracy of feudalism, instead appointing officials to carry out his rules in all of China's provinces

Which of the following conclusions can you make based on the passage?

The Ch'in Dynasty enjoyed a stable and long-lasting rule.

By abolishing feudalism, Ch'in Shih Huang-ti promoted democracy in China.

The Ch'in Dynasty was popular among peas-ants and displaced nobles.

Disunity and disorder marked the Ch'in Dynasty.

The Ch'in Dynasty had long-lasting influence.

The Ch'in Dynasty introduced a centralized government ruled by a monarchy—a form of government that lasted in China until 1911, when revolutionaries overthrew the last dynasty
Report to the Twenty-Third Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 1966

Prerevolutionary Russia was an economically backward country. It was . . . a land of the sledgehammer and the wheelbarrow, the wooden plow and the spinning wheel. Despite its rich mineral deposits, the country was acutely short of metal. Its numerous villages were illuminated at night by the miserable flame of a smoky splinter. The people lived in want and overwhelming ignorance . . .

From the time of this report, just five decades had passed since the day the October Revolution of 1917 was won in Russia, and the Bolsheviks (later called Communists) took power into their own hands. In 1922 the United Soviet Socialists Republic (U.S.S.R., or Soviet Union) was established. By 1966 the face of the country had changed beyond recognition. It was no longer the underdeveloped country it used to be, but a much stronger and more prosperous land, yet the people were controlled by the dictates of the Communist Party. In time, the people demanded greater freedom from the central government. In 1991 Communist rule ended. The Soviet Union was dissolved, and the Soviet republics declared their independence. Power was in the hands of the people.

Which of the following is a factor that, according to the article, should have favored economic development in prerevolutionary Russia?

numerous villages

sledgehammers and wheelbarrows

mineral resources

ability of its people

concentration of power

The first paragraph mentions that prerevolutionary Russia had rich mineral deposits. This should have helped Russia's economic development more than any of the other options.

Which of the following statements best summarizes the information given in the passage?

There was a shortage of metal in prerevolutionary Russia.

The Soviet Union has made great progress since the revolution of 1917.

Russians live mainly in small, poorly built villages.

The Soviet economy is still backward and underdeveloped.

The Soviet people need to seize control of their governments.

The passage contrasts Russia before and after the 1917 Revolution. The many improvements since the Revolution are best summarized by this option.

What did the writer mean by calling Russia a land of "the wooden plow and the spinning wheel"?

The most modern factory equipment had just been installed.

There was a shortage of metal products in Russia.

Most Russians worked as farmers and spinners before the revolution.

Russia was no longer a backward nation.

Russia had primitive agricultural and industrial production.

The expression "the wooden plow and the spinning wheel" refers to Russia's agricultural and industrial production methods. Both the wooden plow and the spinning wheel are old and outdated.