Ged Social Studies Practice Test 10 - online test

The task of economic policy is to create a prosperous America. The unfinished task of prosperous Americans is to build a Great Society. Our accomplishments have been many; these tasks remain unfinished:
*to achieve full employment without inflation;
*to restore external equilibrium and defend the dollar;
*to enhance the efficiency and flexibility of our private and public economies;
*to widen the benefits of prosperity;
*to improve the quality of American life
-Lyndon B. Johnson

Former President Lyndon felt that the most important first step in the war against poverty is

full employment

a sound dollar

private and public economics

our natural defense

efficiency in government

President Johnson mentioned full employment as the first of America's unfinished tasks and the first goal that must be achieved in the national interest.

The speech implies that America's prosperity

is threatened

is at its peak

must be retained

must be broadened

threatened Johnson's war against poverty

President Johnson listed the widening of the benefits of prosperity as one of the tasks that remained unfinished.
Nations---Birthrate(per 1000 females)---Infant Mortality Rate(per 1000 births)
Uganda---51---104
Somalia---50---122
Angola---47---137
Cambodia---46---112
Ethiopia---46---110
Pakistan---40---109
Canada---14---6.8
France---13---6.7
Denmark---13---6.6
Italy---10---8.3
Germany---10---5.9
Japan---10---4.4

(Source: Information Please Almanac, 1995 (est. mid-1994)Nations---Birthrate(per 1000 females)---Infant Mor...

Which is a valid generalization based on the information in the chart?

In developing nations, the infant mortality rate decreases as the birthrate increases.

Industrialized nations have lower birthrates and infant mortality rates than developing nations.

Decreasing the infant mortality rate will limit population growth in developing nations.

Industrialized nations have higher population densities than developing nations.

Developing nations have ten times the infant mortality of industrialized nations.

A valid generalization from the chart is that industrialized nations have lower birth rates and infant mortality rates than developing nations. The first six nations of the chart are developing nations, whereas the last six are industrialized nations. The average birth rate of the developing nations is four times greater than that of the industrialized nations. The difference between infant mortality rates is even greater. from Uganda's, which is 12 times greater than Italy's, to Angola's, which is 31 times greater than Japans.

According to the chart, the lowest birthrates are found mostly in

Western Europe

Southeast Asia

North America

Africa

Latin America

According to the chart, the highest infant mortality rates are in

Western Europe

Southeast Asia

North America

Africa

Latin America

Even though acid rain looks, feels, and even tastes like clean rainwater, it contains high levels of pollutants. Scientists believe car exhaust and smoke from factories and power plants are the main causes of acid rain, but natural sources like gases from forest fires and volcanoes may also contribute to the problem. Pollutants mix in the atmosphere to form fine particles that can be carried long distances by wind. Eventually, they return to the ground in the form of rain, snow, fog, or other precipitation. Acid rain damages trees and causes the acidification of lakes and streams, contaminating drinking water and damaging aquatic life. It erodes buildings, paint, and monuments. It can also affect human health. Although acid rain does not directly harm people, high levels of the fine particles in acid rain are linked to increased risk for asthma and bronchitis. Since the 1950s, the increase of acid rain has become a problem in the north-eastern United States, Canada, and Western Europe.

Which of the following natural resources is least likely to be affected by acid rain?

animal life

plant life

coal reserves

water

forest

All of these natural resources are negatively affected by acid rain except coal reserves.

Which of the following is NOT a cause of acid rain?

human activity

natural phenomena

volcanoes

lakes and streams

traffic

Lakes and streams are affected by acid rain, but do not cause it.
"Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. Compulsory school attendance laws and the great expenditures for education both demon-strate our recognition of the importance of education to our democratic society. It is required in the performance of our most basic public responsibilities, even service in the armed forces. It is the very foundation of good citizen-ship. Today, it is a principal instrument in awakening the child to cultural values, in preparing him for later professional training, and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment. In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.

We come then to the question presented: Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other ‘tangible' factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe that it does. "

—U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren in a 1954 decision that ruled that separate schools for blacks and whites were unconstitutional

Source: Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.

Which of the following is NOT a purpose of education as expressed in the quotation?

to expose children to values

to explain the government's education budget

to prepare those who might serve the country as soldiers

to produce good citizens

to give kids a chance to succeed at life

According to the quotation, the amount of money the government spends on education shows that people care about education. However, it does not offer an example of why people value education

According to the passage, how might the court define "equal educational opportunity"?

schools with the same quality of teaching

schools with the same quality of facilities and materials

schools that only admit students based on sex

schools that separate minority students to give them a better chance

schools of the same quality and welcome all students regardless of race

The court's decision states that a similar level of "physical facilities and other ‘tangible' factors" is not enough to offer equal educational opportunity. You can infer that the court believes schools should also welcome students of all races
The U. S. Constitution gives the president the power to veto, or reject, a bill passed by Congress. The president sends the proposed law back to Congress and states his objections. Because it takes a two-thirds vote from both the House of Representatives and the Senate to override a veto, Congress often changes the bill to make it more acceptable to the president. Sometimes, Congress adds provisions to a bill that the president strongly favors. The president does not have the power of line-item veto, in which lines or parts of a bill can be rejected individually. The president must accept or reject the bill as Congress has written it.

Which of the following statements can you infer from the passage?

Congress is more powerful than the president.

Congress tries to get the president to accept its provisions by attaching provisions to a bill that the president supports.

A president is more effective when members of the same political party are the majority in Congress.

If a president vetoes a bill, there is no way to get it passed into law.

Bills that the president vetoes are unconstitutional.

choice b is suggested in the passage. Because the president cannot reject single items within a bill, he must accept them if he wants it to pass overall

Which of the following conclusions can you make based on the passage?

It is easier to rewrite and make a bill more acceptable to the president than it is to override a veto.

It is easier to override a veto than it is to rewrite and make a bill more acceptable to the president.

The U. S. Constitution gives the president the power to edit the bills he receives from Congress.

The system of checks and balances ensures that president has no influence over the law-making branch of government.

Presidents rarely use their power to veto.

Because Congress would rather rewrite a bill than try to override a veto, you can conclude that it is easier to do so. Choices c and d are not true, and choice e is not discussed in the passage
"We might as easily reprove the east wind, or the frost, as a political party, whose members, for the most part, could give no account of their position, but stand for the defence of those interests in which they find themselves. "
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882), U. S. essayist

"A party of order or stability, and a party of progress or reform, are both necessary elements of a healthy state of political life. "
—John Stuart Mill (1806–1873), British philosopher

Which of the following party systems would Emerson most likely support?

one in which with citizens are loyal to a politi-cal party at all costs

a two-party system

a system with a liberal party that advocates for change and a conservative party that main-tains tradition

one in which citizens are independent and think for themselves

a multi-party system

Emerson portrays loyal party members as followers who cannot defend the positions of their own party. Emerson would most likely choose a system that encourages individual thought

Which of the following party systems would Mill most likely support?

one in which with citizens are loyal to a political party at all costs

a two-party system

a system with a liberal party that advocates for change and a conservative party that maintains tradition

one in which citizens are independent and think for themselves

a multi-party system

While choice b is a possible answer, choice c is the best answer. Mill believes that a healthy system needs political parties with the opposing goals of change and order
The U. S. Constitution does not explicitly give the power of judicial review to the Supreme Court. In fact, the court did not use this power—which gives it the authority to invalidate laws and executive actions if they conflict with the Constitution—until the 1803 case of Marbury v. Madison. In that case, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that a statute was unconstitutional. He argued that judicial review was necessary if the court was to fulfill its duty of upholding the Constitution. Without it, he felt that the legislature would have a "real and practical omnipotence. " Moreover, several of the Constitution's framers expected the court to act in this way. Alexander Hamilton and James Madison emphasized the importance of judicial review in the Federalist Papers, a series of essays promoting the adoption of the Constitution. However, the power of judicial review continues to be a controversial power because it allows the justices—who are appointed rather than elected—to overturn laws made by Congress and state lawmaking bodies.

Which of the following statements is an implication of judicial review?

The Constitution is a historic document with little influence over how the government operates today.

The Constitution must explicitly state which branch of government is to have what authority.

The framers never meant for the Supreme Court to have this power.

If Supreme Court justices were elected, the power of judicial review would be justified.

The Constitution is a living document that continues to be interpreted.

Through judicial review, the Supreme Court is continually interpreting the limits set by the Constitution

Which of the following best describes the purpose of judicial review?

to declare a law unconstitutional

to follow public opinion polls

to determine the country's changing needs

to propose new laws

to adapt the Constitution to what the court feels is right

Judicial review means to declare a law either constitutional or unconstitutional
Beginning in 1958 . . . local NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] chapters organized sit-ins, where African Americans, many of whom were college students, took seats and demanded service at segregated all-white lunch counters. It was, however, the sit-in demonstrations at Wool-worth's store in Greensboro, North Carolina, beginning on February 1, 1960, that caught national attention and sparked other sit-ins and demonstrations in the South. One of the four students in the first Greensboro sit-in, Joe McNeil, later recounted his experience: " . . . we sat at a lunch counter where blacks never sat before. And people started to look at us. The help, many of whom were black, looked at us in disbelief too. They were concerned about our safety. We asked for service, and we were denied, and we expected to be denied. We asked why we couldn't be served, and obviously, we weren't given a reasonable answer, and it was our intent to sit there until they decided to serve us. "

Source: www. congresslink. org and Henry Hampton and Steve Fayer (eds. ) Voices of Freedom: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s through the 1980s. Vintage Paperback, 1995.

Joe McNeil has not directly stated, but would support, which of the following statements?

Without the sit-in in Greensboro, NC, the civil rights movement would never have started.

Woolworth's served affordable lunches.

Local NAACP chapters were causing trouble and upsetting citizens.

Nobody was surprised when black college students took a seat at the all-white lunch counter.

The college students showed courage when they participated in the Greensboro sit-in.

Although McNeil does not state that the college students were brave, the firsthand account notes that the African American Woolworth's employees "were concerned" about the students' safety. This implies that the students could not be sure of what consequences they would face

What is the author's purpose in including Joe McNeil's quotation?

to show that young people are the most likely to push for societal change

to demonstrate that everyone has a different point of view

to give a firsthand account of what has become a historic event

to discount the importance of the civil rights movement

to show that the college students had not intended to create a stir

The author uses Joe McNeil's account to give a firsthand description of what it was like to be a part of a significant event in the civil rights movement
Question refers to the following definitions of political beliefs and policies:
Isolationism: a national policy of avoiding political alliances with other nations
Nationalism: a sense of allegiance to the interests and culture of a nation
Jingoism: extreme nationalism characterized by a warring foreign policy
Pacifism: the belief that nations should settle their disputes peacefully
Regionalism: a political division between two regions within an area

Read the next items and identify which label best describes each of them.

"This whole nation of one hundred and thirty million free men, women, and children is becoming one great fighting force. Some of us are soldiers or sailors, some of us are civilians . . . A few of us are decorated with medals for heroic achievement, but all of us can have that deep and permanent inner satisfaction that comes from doing the best we know how—each of us playing an honorable part in the great struggle to save our democratic civilization. "
—Radio address of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, October 12, 1942

isolationism

nationalism

jingoism

pacifism

regionalism

The purpose of Roosevelt's address was to inspire a spirit of nationalism during World War II

"The . . . parties solemnly declare in the names of their respective peoples that they condemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversies, and renounce it as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another."
—Kellogg-Briand Pact, Article I, 1928

isolationism

nationalism

jingoism

pacifism

regionalism

Signed by the United States and 15 other nations, the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 tried to promote pacifism. However, because there was no way to enforce the pact, it was not effective

"The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is, in extending our commercial relations to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith."
—President George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796

isolationism

nationalism

jingoism

pacifism

regionalism

Washington advocates avoiding political attachments with other nations, which is an isolationist view

"The free States alone, if we must go on alone, will make a glorious nation. Twenty millions in the temperate zone, stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, full of vigor, industry, inventive genius, educated, and moral; increasing by immigration rapidly, and, above all, free—all free—will form a confederacy of twenty States scarcely inferior in real power to the unfortunate Union of thirty-three States which we had on the first of November."
—Rutherford Birchard Hayes, January 4, 1861

isolationism

nationalism

jingoism

pacifism

regionalism

This comment demonstrates the political division between the North and South before the outbreak of the Civil War