Ged Social Studies Practice 4 - online test

Manifest Destiny

By the early 1800s, Americans were on the move westward. Like the Puritans who had come before them, courageous pioneers believed that Americans had an obligation to stretch their culture and civilization across the North American continent. In 1845, newspaper editor John O’Sullivan wrote an article about the call of the west, saying that it was the “manifest destiny” of whites to settle it.

Which of the following groups would be least likely to agree with O’Sullivan’s view of manifest destiny in the mid-19th century?

a western pioneer

a western pioneer

a western pioneer

a western pioneer

Manifest destiny was used by whites as a reason or an excuse to settle the land of the North American continent—land that was already occupied by Native Americans. A Native American shaman would not agree with the point of view that the culture of white Americans was superior and should be spread across the continent.

A monopoly exists when one company or organization controls the sale of a good or service. In the United States, there are laws that do not allow monopolies in most industries. Antitrust laws are intended to prevent one company from stopping others from entering the market and competing.

What is the purpose of antitrust laws?

to encourage more jobs and to reduce unemployment

to encourage more jobs and to reduce unemployment

to encourage more jobs and to reduce unemployment

to encourage more jobs and to reduce unemployment

Antitrust laws are used to discourage monopolies. When a monopoly exists, the company with the monopoly can drive up prices. Through antitrust laws, the government encourages competition or provides protection for new companies seeking to enter the market. That helps to keep prices low and encourages companies to innovate to attract market share.
Minimum Wage

The minimum wage is a federal law that sets the minimum amount a full-time hourly employee can be paid. Congress passed the first minimum wage—25 cents—in 1935 and has since increased the minimum wage to keep up with the rising cost of living. Starting in 2009, the federal minimum wage for covered nonexempt employees was $7.25 per hour. Some states have their own minimum wage, which may be higher (but not lower) than the federal minimum wage. Ten states raise their rates each year to keep the rates in line with cost-of-living increases.


Not all jobs are covered by minimum wage laws. The jobs that are covered are generally full-time (40 hours a week), nonmanagerial positions. Seasonal and part-time workers are not covered. Exceptions may apply to full-time students, employees who receive tips, and student-learners.

Which employee would benefit most from an increase in the minimum wage?

a full-time worker in a fast-food restaurant

a full-time worker in a fast-food restaurant

a full-time worker in a fast-food restaurant

a full-time worker in a fast-food restaurant

Those most likely to benefit from an increase in the minimum wage are full-time workers who earn the minimum wage. Currently many workers in that category work in service occupations. These include food preparation jobs such as those in fast-food restaurants. Part-time workers, seasonal workers, and managerial positions are exempt from minimum wage laws. Business owners not only are not covered by the minimum wage, but an increase in minimum wage may affect them negatively because they will have to pay higher wages to employees.

Why has the minimum wage increased over the years?

Today there are more people competing for jobs than there used to be.

Today there are more people competing for jobs than there used to be.

Today there are more people competing for jobs than there used to be.

Today there are more people competing for jobs than there used to be.

Minimum wage laws require business owners to pay full-time workers a fair wage. However, 25 cents (the minimum wage when the law went into effect in 1935) does not buy today what it did in 1935. This is because today’s cost of living is far higher than in the 1930s. The minimum wage is increased to accommodate increases in the cost of living because basic necessities cost more than they used to.

Read the sentence from the passage:
Some states have their own minimum wage, which may be higher (but not lower) than the federal minimum wage.
What is the constitutional foundation for this principle?

“The Congress shall have Power to . . . regulate Commerce . . . among the several States. . . .” (Article I, Section 8)

“The Congress shall have Power to . . . regulate Commerce . . . among the several States. . . .” (Article I, Section 8)

“The Congress shall have Power to . . . regulate Commerce . . . among the several States. . . .” (Article I, Section 8)

“The Congress shall have Power to . . . regulate Commerce . . . among the several States. . . .” (Article I, Section 8)

Called the supremacy clause, this provides the basis for the relationship between the federal and state governments. In essence, federal law trumps state laws. States must adhere to the minimum requirements of federal laws. They can, however, pass stricter laws if they choose. In the case of the minimum wage, the federal law establishes the minimum wage; states can (and some states do) increase this to a higher wage if they so choose.
This table shows some facts about the behavior of potential voters by age level in the 2012 U.S. presidential election.
AgeVotedRegistered, Did Not VoteNot RegisteredNo Response
18–2945%13%25%17%
30–3958%11%17%14%
40–4963%9%14%13%
50–5968%7%12%12%
60–6972%6%10%12%
70+71%8%12%11%

Which would be the BEST headline for a newspaper article announcing these results?

Activists Try to Get Out the Vote

Activists Try to Get Out the Vote

Activists Try to Get Out the Vote

Activists Try to Get Out the Vote

The table and resulting graph show that voter participation tends to increase with age. In the United States only 45 percent of potential voters age 18–29 actually voted, compared with 71 percent of potential voters over the age of 70. Although more people register to vote than actually vote, there is no indication that registration is an obstacle to voting.
The Electoral College

In 1783, when the U.S. Constitution was being drafted, there were several obstacles to electing the president by popular vote, most notably the lack of comprehensive and reliable communication and transportation systems. In addition some of the Founding Fathers worried that the “common” people might not be wise enough to elect the best candidate. The Founding Fathers hit upon the solution of the Electoral College to address these concerns. Rather than having voters cast their vote directly for the president, states would instead elect delegates who would choose the president according to the decisions made by voters. Collectively, this group is called the Electoral College.


The number of delegates that each state sends to the Electoral College is equal to the number of representatives from that state in the U.S. Congress. There are 538 electoral votes in all. Most states, but not all, have a winner-take-all system in which all of the electoral votes for that state go to the candidate who wins the popular vote in that state. Although usually the candidate who wins the majority of the popular vote nationwide is elected president, there have been a few instances in which this has not happened.

Which of the following statements about the Electoral College is true?

The Electoral College ensures that every citizen has a voice in government.

The Electoral College ensures that every citizen has a voice in government.

The Electoral College ensures that every citizen has a voice in government.

The Electoral College ensures that every citizen has a voice in government.

Each state has the same number of electoral votes as the number of its representatives in Congress. Congressional representatives are allotted by population, and thus states with larger populations have more electoral votes than those with smaller populations. Therefore the more heavily populated states have greater influence in presidential elections.

The Electoral College best exemplifies which of the following approaches to government?

autocracy, in which one person rules and makes all important decisions

autocracy, in which one person rules and makes all important decisions

autocracy, in which one person rules and makes all important decisions

autocracy, in which one person rules and makes all important decisions

The Electoral College is a representative institution in which delegates from each state represent the voters who cast ballots in that state.

This excerpt from the U.S. Constitution specifies “All persons born or naturalized in the United States . . . are citizens of the United States and the state wherein they reside.”

states’ rights.

states’ rights.

states’ rights.

states’ rights.

This excerpt specifies the basis for citizenship. Anyone who is born in the United States or who goes through the naturalization process is considered a citizen of both the United States and the state in which that citizen lives.

These tables show the countries of origin for immigrants to the United States at the beginning and at the end of the 20th century.


Immigration by Leading Country or Region of Last Residence: 1901–1930 (in thousands)
All CountriesGermanyIrelandItalyNorwaySwedenRussia/Soviet UnionUnited KingdomChinaCanadaMexicoCaribbeanAfrica
1901–19108,795.4341.5339.12,045.9190.5249.51,597.3526.020.6179.249.6107.5339.1
1911–19205,735.8154.9146.21,109.566.495.1921.2341.421.3742.2219.0123.4146.2
1911–19205,735.8154.9146.21,109.566.495.1921.2341.421.3742.2219.0123.4146.2
1921–19304,107.2412.2211.2455.368.597.261.7339.629.9924.5459.374.9211.2

Immigration by Leading Country or Region of Last Residence: 1971–2000 (in thousands)



All CountriesGermanyIrelandItalyNorwaySwedenSoviet UnionUnited KingdomChinaCanadaMexicoCaribbeanAfrica
1971–19804,493.374.411.5129.43.96.539.0137.4124.3169.9640.3741.180.8
1981–19907,338.192.032.067.34.211.057.7159.2346.7156.91,655.8872.1176.9
1991–20009,095.492.657.062.75.212.7462.9151.9419.1192.02,249.4978.8354.9

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Which trend is shown in these tables?

Far fewer immigrants came to the United States at the end of the 20th century than at the beginning of the century.

Far fewer immigrants came to the United States at the end of the 20th century than at the beginning of the century.

Far fewer immigrants came to the United States at the end of the 20th century than at the beginning of the century.

Far fewer immigrants came to the United States at the end of the 20th century than at the beginning of the century.

In the first three decades shown in the table, the majority of immigrants came from Europe, partly because immigration laws limited the number from other countries. By the end of the century there were far more immigrants from China, Mexico, and the Caribbean.

What is the main responsibility of Congress?

to make laws

to make laws

to make laws

to make laws

The main responsibility of Congress is to make laws. Congress also has other responsibilities, such as approving treaties and nominations, but these are secondary to the core responsibility of legislating.

This timeline shows some of the key events in the long history of Istanbul, Turkey.


660 BC: Byzantium is founded and inhabited by Greek colonists.


AD 330: Byzantium (renamed Constantinople) becomes eastern capital of the Roman Empire.


AD 1453: Constantinople is conquered by Ottoman Turks; becomes capital of Ottoman Empire.


AD 1923: Republic of Turkey is established; Constantinople is officially renamed Istanbul.

What impact did these events have on the city of Istanbul?

It changed its location.

It changed its location.

It changed its location.

It changed its location.

The city went through many changes during the course of its history. Each group that controlled the city brought its unique culture, contributing to the city’s cultural diversity.

Which phrase best summarizes the idea in this quote?
“Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”
—President John F.Kennedy

civic responsibility

civic responsibility

civic responsibility

civic responsibility

This phrase appeals to the democratic idea and ideal that citizenship entails civic responsibility.