Ged Reasoning Through Language Arts Test 4 - online test

A tumor is a mass of tissue that's formed by an accumulation of abnormal cells. Normally, the cells in your body age, die, and are replaced by new cells. With cancer and other tumors, something disrupts this cycle. Tumor cells grow, even though the body does not need them, and like normal old cells, they don't die. As this process goes on, the tumor continues to grow as more and more cells are added to the mass. Primary brain tumors emerge from the various cells that make up the brain and central nervous system and are named for the kind of cell in which they first form. The most common types of adult brain tumors are gliomas and astrocytic tumors. These tumors form from astrocytes and other types of glial cells, which are cells that help keep nerves healthy. Benign brain tumors are noncancerous. Malignant primary brain tumors are cancers that originate in the brain, typically grow faster than benign tumors, and aggressively invade surrounding tissue. Although brain cancer rarely spreads to other organs, it will spread to other parts of the brain and central nervous system.

Read the supporting details then answer the following question.
According to the passage, what happens to tumor cells?

They die

They don’t die

The get smaller

They spread out

According to the passage, tumor cells don’t die. In fact, tumor cells grow and lump together in a mass; therefore, they do not get smaller or spread out. This information is found in the passage’s first paragraph.
Facade (a tritina) So many have come to dwell behind a panarchy mask Lost between the delusive dimensions of identity
 Unable to perceive that which is deemed real They dare not throw aside the caparison that veils the real Lest those that wish to deceive and to mask Would reveal the abstersive truth of their own identity
 Yet if all would but don the verisimilitude of their identity
 Then the shadows cast would corrivate into the real
 And no longer would there lie merit within a mask Are you the mask of your identity or are you real? - Sheri Hockman

Read the supporting details then answer the following question.
What is meant by “abstersive truth” in line 6?

Fake truth

Hidden truth

Theoretical truth

Pure truth

Pure truth is what is meant by the use of “absterive truth” in line 6 of the poem. You will need to use the process of elimination to answer this question. The line is stating that you would reveal the truth of your own identity if you removed the mask. Therefore, you would not be revealing a fake, a theoretical, or a hidden truth; you would be revealing the pure you.

Read the supporting details then correct the sentence below.
Sentences 2 and 3: From Africa to Japan to Spain and the UK, the vampire has held humans enthralled for “centuries. Nowhere, however, do we see” more vampire folklore than in the stories of the Slavic people.
Which of the following options best represents how the quoted portion of these sentences should be written?

centuries, however, nowhere do we see

centuries; however, nowhere have we saw

centuries; however, nowhere do we see

centuries, however, nowhere have we seen

“Centuries” is the end of an independent clause and “however” is a coordinating conjunction that is used to link one independent clause to another. Therefore, you should use a semicolon after “centuries” and use a comma after the coordinating conjunction to link one independent clause to another. The sentence should remain in the present tense, just as it is in the original sentence.
The compass is an instrument used for navigation; it generally has a magnetic needle that points toward the earth's magnetic North Pole. The magnetic compass has been in existence for nearly a thousand years and is the most common type of compass. Magnetic compasses, the most simple and common type of compass, are aligned to the earth's magnetic field. These compasses point to the earth's magnetic North Pole. Magnetic compasses are very simple, easily built devices, but must be laid completely flat on a platform, require some time to adjust to a turned platform, and may suffer interference from local magnetic fields. In order to adjust a magnetic compass to due or true north and toward the geographic North Pole, one must know the amount of magnetic declination that exists in a specific region. There are online maps and calculators available that provide the difference in declination between true north and magnetic north for every point on the globe. By adjusting one's magnetic compass based on the local magnetic declination, it is possible to ensure that one's directions are accurate.

Read the supporting details then answer the following question.
What is meant by “magnetic declination” in the first sentence of the third paragraph?

Variation between the true north and the magnetic north

Decline in the North Pole’s magnetic force field

Accurate directions provided by a magnetic compass

Magnetic interference from the equator

The passage implies that the magnetic declination is the variation between the true north and the magnetic north. The passage informs you that there is some interference from local magnetic fields and that one will need to know the amount of magnetic declination in order to adjust a magnetic compass. Thus, you can imply that you must need to know the variance in order to adjust a magnetic compass.
The American buffalo is a symbol of the United States, much like the bald eagle. They were once found roaming wild from Alaska down through Mexico. It is estimated that there were once over 60 million buffalo in the United States, traveling in herds throughout the Great Plains. American buffalo, also called bison, are large, shaggy animals with long black horns that end in a sharp tip. Due to their abundance, bison were a central figure in the culture of many Native American tribes, especially those who lived in the plains extending from southern Canada down through most of the central mid-west region of the United States. The Native Americans were able to use every part of the buffalo, letting nothing go to waste. In the middle to late 1800's, the United States government encouraged the slaughter of millions of American buffalo. It was hoped that by getting rid of the buffalo, the government could also solve the problem they were having with the Native Americans. The slaughter reached its peak during the 1870s, with estimates putting the number of buffalo killed during the first three or four years of that decade alone at more than four and a half million. By the time the American government stepped in, reversing its decision on killing the buffalo, there were less than 100 left in the country. It was thought that the American buffalo was headed for extinction. Fortunately, due to individual ranchers, new government legislation, and safe grazing areas on state lands, the bison have made a comeback. There are only two known wild buffalo herds left in North America, but they are raised by the thousands on ranches and farms all over the United States and Canada. Although there will never be as many as there once were, the American buffalo is no longer facing the threat of extinction.

Read the supporting details then answer the following question.
From the passage, you can determine that Native Americans used the American buffalo for:

Feeding their people

Plowing their fields

Pulling their wagons

Guarding their lands

The passage does not directly state that the Native Americans consumed the American buffalo, but it does state that the Native Americans were able to use every part of the buffalo and that they did not waste any of it; therefore, you can determine that the buffalo’s carcass was used by the Native Americans. In order for the American buffalo to plow, pull, or guard, it would need to be alive; therefore, you can eliminate those options as possible answers.

Read the supporting details then correct the sentence below.
Sentence 11: I can give some pointers on working a smartphone which helped my daughter.
Which of the following changes should be made to correct sentence 11?

Replace “which” with “that”

Change “helped” to “helps”

Change “a” to “an”

Change “pointers” to “pointer”

In order to correct sentence 11, you need to replace “which” with “that.” This sentence contains a pronoun error. The pronoun “which” is not used correctly, as it should be used to refer to “smartphone” in a nonrestrictive clause (set off with commas). Therefore, “which” should be replaced with “that,” as the pronoun “that” should be used to refer to “smartphone” in a restrictive clause. The other answer options are not options that would make the sentence grammatically correct.
Jerky is lean meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, and then dried to prevent spoilage. Normally, this drying includes the addition of salt, to prevent bacteria from developing on the meat before sufficient moisture has been removed. The word "jerky" is derived from the Spanish word charqui, which is from the Quechua word ch'arki, which means to burn (meat). All that is needed to produce basic "jerky" is a low-temperature drying method, and salt to inhibit bacterial growth. Modern manufactured jerky is normally marinated in a seasoned spice rub or liquid, and dried, dehydrated, or smoked with low heat. Some makers still use just salt and sundry fresh sliced meat to make jerky. Some product manufacturers finely grind meat, mix in seasonings, and press the meat-paste into flat shapes prior to drying. The resulting jerky from the above methods would be a salty and/or savory snack. However, often a sweet or semi-sweet recipe is used, with sugar being a major ingredient. Jerky is ready-to-eat and needs no additional preparation. It can be stored for months without refrigeration. When the protein to moisture content ratio is correct, the resulting meat is cured, or preserved.

Read the supporting details then answer the following question.
Which of the following options best describes why salt is used to make jerky?

To prevent bacteria from growing on the meat

To provide a salty and savory flavoring to the meat

To draw the moisture out of the meat

To offset the sweetness of the meat

The option that best describes why salt is used to make jerky is: To prevent bacteria from growing on the meat. The answer to this question is found in the second sentence of the passage’s first paragraph. The salt that is used to prevent the bacteria from growing does provide the jerky with a salty flavor; however, the salt is not used directly for the flavoring. The salt may also help draw moisture out of the meat, but this is not implied in the given passage.

Read the supporting details then correct the sentence below.
Sentence 6: Furthermore it is well known that trees improve air quality; leaves filter the air we breathe, absorb pollution, and give off oxygen.
Which of the following changes should be made to correct sentence 6?

Replace “quality;” with “quality,”

Change “absorb” to “absorbs”

Change “improve” to “improved”

Insert a comma after “Furthermore”

In order to correct sentence 6, you would need to insert a comma after “Furthermore.” A comma should be used to set off interjections and interruptions; therefore, it is necessary to place a comma after the interjection (“Furthermore”). The use of a semicolon after “quality” is appropriate, as it is being used to join two independent clauses. The other answer options are not options that would make the sentence grammatically correct.

Read the supporting details then correct the sentence below.
Sentence 1: The road builders of the late 1800s depend solely on stone, gravel, and sand for construction.
Which of the following changes should be made to correct sentence 1?

Remove the comma after “gravel”

Change “depend” to “depended”

Change “road builders” to “Road Builders”

Change “builders” to “builder’s”

In order to correct sentence 1, you would need to change “depend” to “depended.” The sentence is written in the past tense, as it is referring to the 1800s; therefore, “depend” needs to be written in the past tense (“depended”). The comma after “gravel” is grammatically correct, as it is being used to separate items in a series. You should not capitalize “road builders,” as it is not being used as part of someone’s title. The word “builders” should remain in its plural form, as it is not showing possession.

Read the supporting details then correct the sentence below.
Sentence 6: It has been theorized that with this as a base of folklore, the Gypsies picked up bits and pieces of other legends as they migrated toward the Northwest and as a result, altered the folklore of the Slavic nations.
Which of the following changes should be made to correct the capitalization error sentence 6?

Change “Gypsies” to “gypsies”

Change “Slavic” to “slavic”

Change “Northwest” to “northwest”

Change “nations” to “Nations”

In this sentence, “Northwest” is being used to show a direction (“toward the Northwest”), not a section of the country; therefore, it should not be capitalized. “Gypsies” and “Slavic” are both proper names of a group of people and should be capitalized. “Nations” is not a proper noun and should not be capitalized, unless it is used at the beginning of a sentence or within a title.

Read the supporting details then correct the sentence below.
Sentence 7: With a budget of $10,000, ORI promoted new rural road development to serve the wagon, coaches, and bicycles on America's dirt roads.
Which of the following changes should be made to correct sentence 7?

Change “promoted” to “promote”

Remove the comma after “$10,000”

Change “a” to “an”

Change “wagon” to “wagons”

In order to correct sentence 7, you would need to change “wagon” to “wagons.” This sentence contains a parallelism error. You will notice that “wagon” is the only word in the series that is not plural (i.e. “wagon, coaches, and bicycles); therefore, in order to make the series parallel, you must use the plural form (“wagons”). The other answer options are not options that would make the sentence grammatically correct.

Read the supporting details then correct the sentence below.
Sentence 9: Today, thousands of people belong to about 60 krewes that plan the parades and balls of New Orleans Mardi Gras.
Which of the following changes should be made to correct sentence 9?

Change thousands to thousand

Change New Orleans to New Orleans'

Change that to which

Insert a comma after people

The sentence has “New Orleans” showing possession over “Mardi Gras”; therefore, you would need to add an apostrophe after the “s” on “Orleans.” “That” is used appropriately in a restrictive clause (not set off with commas) and the other two options would create the sentence to become grammatically incorrect.

Read the supporting details then correct the sentence below.
Sentence 2: Water would be used as an binder to give some unity to the road surface.
Which of the following changes should be made to correct sentence 2?

Change “would” to “will”

Change “give” to “given”

Change “an” to “a”

Insert a comma after “Water”

In order to correct sentence 2, you would need to change “an” to “a.” As a rule, “an” should only be used before words that start with a vowel (i.e. a, e, i, o, and u) or before a word that contains an unpronounced “h” (i.e. hour). Therefore, “a” should be used before words that begin with a consonant (i.e. b, c, d, f, ...). In this sentence “binder” begins with a consonant (“b”); therefore, it should be proceeded with “a,” not “an.” The other answer options are not options that would make the sentence grammatically correct.

Read the supporting details then correct the sentence below.
Sentence 5: It is estimated that there were over four million tractor-trailer combination on the roads, delivering three out of every four tons of goods.
Which of the following options would correct sentence 5?

Change “estimated” to “estimates”

Remove the comma after “roads”

Change “were” to “are”

Change “delivering” to “delivers”

In order to correct sentence 5, the past tense verb “were” should be changed to the present tense verb “are.” The beginning of the sentence is written in the present tense (“It is ...”); therefore, the remainder of the sentence should also be written in the present tense.

Read the supporting details then correct the sentence below.
Sentence 10: Eukaryotes grow and reproduce through an process called mitosis.
Which of the following changes should be made to correct sentence 10?

Change “an” to “a”

Change “through” to “thru”

Change “reproduce” to “reproduced”

Change “process” to “processes”

As a rule, “an” should only be used before words that start with a vowel (i.e. a, e, i, o, and u) or before a word that contains an unpronounced “h” (i.e. hour). Therefore, “a” should be used before words that begin with a consonant (i.e. b, c, d, f, ...). In this sentence, the next word after “an” starts with a consonant; therefore, “a” should be used. “Through” and “thru” can be used interchangeably; therefore, it would not correct the sentence to change one to the other. Using “reproduced” would create a parallelism error. The sentence is only talking about one process (“mitosis”); therefore, you should not change the singular form of “process” to the plural form.

Read the supporting details then correct the sentence below.
Sentence 4: If her techniques are copy, then anyone could be on the same road to using a smartphone.
Which of the following options best represents how the underlined portion of this sentence should be written?

to be copied

copying

copies

copied

This question requires you to look at the sentence’s tense. In this case, the sentence is in the past tense (“could be”); therefore, your answer needs to also be in the past tense. “Copying” and “copies” are not in the past tense and can be eliminated. The use of “to be” makes the “to be copied” option present tense; therefore, it can also be eliminated.

Read the supporting details then answer the following question.
It is clear from the poem that the author is asking the reader if they are:

Hiding from the public

Going to a masquerade ball

Beautiful on the outside

Disguising who they really are

It is clear from the poem that the author is asking the reader if they are disguising who they really are. This question is testing your comprehension of the poem and is best answered using the process of elimination. The poem does not indicate or mention anything in regards to a costume party; thus, “going to a masquerade ball” can be quickly eliminated. The poem also does not indicate or mention anything in regards to the public; thus, “hiding from the public” can be eliminated. The poem does indicate that the wearer of the mask is disguising what is real, but does not indicate anything about one’s beauty or ugliness; thus, “beautiful on the outside” can be eliminated.

Read the supporting details then correct the sentence below.
Sentence 6: On October 3, 1893, General Roy Stone, a civil war hero and good roads advocate, was appointed special agent in charge of the new Office of Road Inquiry (ORI) within the Department of Agriculture.
Which of the following changes should be made to correct the capitalization error in sentence 6?

Change “special agent” to “Special Agent”

Change “civil war” to “Civil War”

Change “Office of Road Inquiry” to “office of road inquiry”

Change “Department of Agriculture” to “department of agriculture”

In order to correct the capitalization error in sentence 6, you would need to change “civil war” to “Civil War.” Events in history are capitalized; therefore, you would need to capitalize “Civil War.” You would not capitalize “special agent,” as it is not being used with Roy Stone’s name as part of his title (i.e. “General Roy Stone” is capitalized because “General” is used as part of his title). “Office of Road Inquiry” and “Department of Agriculture” are both titles and need to remain capitalized.

Read the supporting details then correct the sentence below.
Sentence 4: We need people like you to donate time energy, and experience in a variety of areas, including food pickup and delivery, administration, home visits, individual transportation, and more.
Which of the following changes should be made to correct sentence 4?

Change “donate” to “donates”

Change “a” to “an”

Change “to” to “too”

Insert a comma after “time”

In order to correct sentence 4, you will need to insert a comma after "time." Commas are used between items in a series. In this question, “time” and “energy” are both part of a series that need to be separated with the use of a comma (time, energy, and experience...). The other answer options are not options that would make the sentence grammatically correct.
The oldest constructed roads discovered to date are in former Mesopotamia, now known as Iraq. These stone paved streets date back to about 4000 B.C. in the Mesopotamia cities of Ur and Babylon. The lands of the Sumerian people offered fertile soil and, with irrigation, crops and livestock were raised successfully. The Sumerians used meticulous brick-making skills, forming identical mud bricks for building. After drying they would take them to the site of a temple and set them in place with bitumen. Bitumen is the natural sticky black substance in asphalt. Centuries would pass before asphalt was used in Europe and America. Glastonbury, the Ancient Isle of Avalon in Somerset, England, was the site of an interesting discovery when timber roads were discovered in a swampy area. Glastonbury, known for King Arthur’s legends and believed to be the actual site of Camelot, has had a pilgrimage since ancient times as it is home to Glastonbury Abbey. Bringing much early “traffic” into the area and requiring roads for the transportation of carts and animal-drawn wagons, the timber roads served the purpose, but more advanced roadways were in the future.

Read the supporting details then answer the following question.
According to the passage, where were the timber roads discovered?

On fertile soil

In the city of Ur

By the Egyptian pyramids

A swampy area

The timber roads were discovered in a swampy area in Somerset, England, which used to be Glastonbury, the Ancient Isle of Avalon. This answer is found in the first sentence of the passage’s second paragraph. The Sumerians, who built brick roads, lived on fertile soils in or around the city of Ur; therefore, those two options can be eliminated. The passage does not mention Egyptian pyramids, so that option can also be eliminated.